O pravoslávnej cirkvi


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O Pravoslávnej Cirkvi

Vznik Cirkvi sa uskuto─Źnil v de┼ł P├Ą┼ądesiatnice na z├íklade pr├şs─żubu Spasite─ża Christa pri Jeho Nanebovst├║pen├ş. Vtedy zost├║pil Duch Sv├Ąt├Ż na apo┼ítolov, zhroma┼żden├Żch v jednom dome v Jeruzaleme. "Ke─Ć pri┼íiel de┼ł P├Ą┼ądesiatnice, boli v┼íetci vedno na tom istom mieste. Tu sa n├íhle strhol hukot z neba, ako ke─Ć sa ┼żenie prudk├Ż vietor, a naplnil cel├Ż dom, v ktorom boli. I zjavili sa im akoby ohniv├ę jazyky, ktor├ę sa rozdelili, a na ka┼żdom z nich spo─Źinul jeden. V┼íetk├Żch naplnil Duch Sv├Ąt├Ż a za─Źali hovori┼ą in├Żmi jazykmi, ako im Duch d├íval hovori┼ą." (Sk 2, 1-4). Od tejto chv├şle nast├íva hlavn├í dejinn├í cesta Cirkvi, ako n├ím o tom sved─Ź├ş kniha Skutkov sv├Ąt├Żch apo┼ítolov a ─Ćal┼íie listy Sv├Ąt├ęho P├şsma.

Pravosl├ívna Cirkev sama seba naz├Żva jednoducho "Cirkev", podobne ako Gr├ęci pou┼ż├şvali v star├Żch dob├ích slovo "kres┼ąan", ke─Ć hovorili o pravosl├ívnych. Je to z toho d├┤vodu, ┼że v├Żchodn├í pravosl├ívna Cirkev je organicky tou obcou, t.j. ekl├ęsiou, ktor├í m├í svoj po─Źiatok v Jeruzaleme v de┼ł P├Ą┼ądesiatnice pri zoslan├ş Sv├Ąt├ęho Ducha. Pravosl├ívna Cirkev v┼żdy verila a ver├ş, ┼że jedinou hlavou Cirkvi je Isus Christos. V Christovi je Cirkev sv├Ąt├í, lebo je posv├Ąten├í vykupite─żsk├Żm dielom Isusa Christa, ktor├Ż je v nej st├íle pr├ştomn├Ż. V Cirkvi p├┤sob├ş Sv├Ąt├Ż Duch, ktor├Ż ju posv├Ącuje, vedie a n├ís nab├ída k bohumil├ęmu ┼żivotu. Pravosl├ívna Cirkev je teda vn├║torne riaden├í Sv├Ąt├Żm Duchom a navonok v zhode s u─Źen├şm Isusa Christa a apo┼ítolov pod─ża svojej trad├şcie je riaden├í biskupmi.

Pravosl├ívna Cirkev na celom svete je jednou, lebo m├í jednotn├ę u─Źenie. Vierouka Pravosl├ívnej cirkvi je obsiahnut├í vo Sv├Ątom p├şsme a Sv├Ątej trad├şcii. Trad├şcii je zachovan├í v ┼żivote Cirkvi ako aj v spisoch sv. otcov.┬áKanonick├ę pr├ívo Pravosl├ívnej cirkvi je zalo┼żen├ę na pravidl├ích, ktor├ę boli prijat├ę na siedmich v┼íeobecn├Żch snemoch, na v├Żznamnej┼í├şch miestnych snemoch a na pravidl├ích, ktor├ę obsahuj├║ spisy sv├Ąt├Żch otcov. Najvy┼í┼í├şm z├íkonodarn├Żm org├ínom spolo─Źn├Żm pre v┼íetky pravosl├ívne cirkvi na svete je v┼íeobecn├Ż snem, ktor├Ż je aj ich spolo─Źn├Żm putom. V┼íeobecn├Ż snem rie┼íi ako najvy┼í┼íia autorita Cirkvi principi├ílne vierou─Źn├ę ot├ízky.

Štruktúra pravoslávnej Cirkvi vo svete

Usporiadanie Pravosl├ívnej (gr├ęcky: ortodoxnej) cirkvi bolo vytvoren├ę v dobe od 1. do 9. storo─Źia. Pod─ża tohto zriadenia sa kres┼ąania organizuj├║ pod─ża ┼ít├ítnych ├║zem├ş a pod─ża n├írodov do vlastn├Żch miestnych cirkv├ş. Miestne cirkvi s├║ spojen├ę do jednej Cirkvi v┼íeobecnej (gr├ęcky: katol├şckej). Do tohto syst├ęmu v┼íeobecnej cirkvi patrila p├┤vodne aj r├şmska cirkev. V nej sa v┼íak nesk├┤r vyv├şjalo p├ípe┼żstvo. Zatia─ż─Źo a┼ż do 9. storo─Źia sa r├şmsky patriarch├ít z├║─Źast┼łoval v┼íetk├Żch v┼íeobecn├Żch snemov a ich uzneseniam sa podria─Ćoval (napr. 6. v┼íeobecn├Ż snem /680-681/ ods├║dil r├şmskeho patriarchu Hon├│ria pre her├ęzu monotheletizmu a r├şmska cirkev sa tomuto rozsudku podriadila), nesk├┤r sa v r├şmskej cirkvi uplat┼łovala z├ísada, ┼że uznesenia v┼íeobecn├Żch snemov potrebuj├║ schv├ílenie r├şmskeho biskupa. V├Żchodn├ę cirkvi proti t├Żmto tendenci├ím v┼żdy protestovali. To viedlo roku 1054 k rozkolu, v ktorom na jednej strane st├íl r├şmsky patriarch├ít a na druhej strane patriarch├íty carihradsk├Ż, alexandrijsk├Ż, antiochijsk├Ż a jeruzalemsk├Ż. V├Żchodn├ę patriarch├íty sa na─Ćalej pevne dr┼żali pravosl├ívneho u─Źenia a nes├║hlasili s nov├Żm v├Żvojom pomerov v r├şmskej cirkvi (s "Filioque", p├ípe┼żstvom, zav├ídzan├şm latin─Źiny, s ideou odpustkov, v┼íeobecn├Żm celib├ítom duchovenstva a i.)

Je historick├Żm omylom, hoci dos┼ą be┼żn├Żm, myslie┼ą si, ┼że Pravosl├ívna cirkev vznikla v roku 1054 odtrhnut├şm od R├şma. Miestne pravosl├ívne cirkvi neboli nikdy podriaden├ę R├şmu, hoci r├şmsky biskup, ako biskup p├┤vodne prv├ęho hlavn├ęho mesta R├şmskej r├ş┼íe, bol pova┼żovan├Ż za ve─żk├║ autoritu. Pr├ívny pomer v├Żchodn├Żch patriarchov k r├şmskemu bol rovnak├Ż, ako bol ich pomer navz├íjom medzi sebou. Nebol to vz┼ąah podriadenosti, ale rovnosti. O odtrhnut├ş od R├şma je mo┼żn├ę hovori┼ą u t├Żch spolo─Źenstiev, ktor├ę sa utvorili na Z├ípade na z├íklade reform├ície, preto┼że pred reform├íciou patrili k r├şmskej cirkvi.

Pravosl├ívna cirkev vyrie┼íila svoj vz┼ąah k n├írodnostiam a ┼ít├ítnym ├║tvarom tak, ┼że je organizovan├í pod─ża ┼ít├ítnym ├║zem├ş a pod─ża n├írodov. K starobyl├Żm patriarch├ítom patria patriarch├íty: carihradsk├Ż, ktor├ęho predstavite─ż je "prv├Ż medzi rovn├Żmi", alexandrijsk├Ż, antiochijsk├Ż a jeruzalemsk├Ż. Historick├Żm v├Żvojom vznikli ─Ćal┼íie miestne patriarch├íty: rusky, gruz├şnsky, srbsk├Ż, rumunsk├Ż a bulharsk├Ż a miestne cirkvi: cypersk├í, gr├ęcka, po─żsk├í, alb├ínska, Pravosl├ívna cirkev v ─Źesk├Żch krajin├ích a na Slovensku, americk├í, sinajsk├í, f├şnska a japonsk├í.

About orthodox church

Establishment of the Church took place on the day of Pentecost to the promise of Christ the Saviour at His Ascension. Then the Holy Spirit descended upon the Apostles, gathered in a house in Jerusalem "When the day of Pentecost came, they were all together in the same place. Suddenly there came from heaven like the rush of a mighty wind, and it filled all the house. Then tongues of fire that separated, and on each of them rested on the Apopstles and Diciples and all were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance." ( Acts 2: 1-4 ). From this moment began the historical journey of the Church, as witnessed by the Acts of the Holy Apostles and Epistles.

The Orthodox Church calls itself simply "The Church", as the Greeks used in ancient times the word "Christian" when talking about the Orthodox. It is for this reason that the Eastern Orthodox Church is the most organic community, ie Ecclesia, which has its roots in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost the outpouring of the Holy Spirit. The Orthodox Church has always believed and believes that the only head of the Church is Jesus Christ. In Christ, the Church is holy because it is sanctified by the redemptive work of Jesus Christ, which is still present in it. The Church co-operates with the Holy Spirit, who sanctifies, leads and encourages us to a holy life. The Orthodox Church is thus controlled by the Holy Spirit internally and externally in accordance with the teachings of Jesus Christ and the Apostles according to their tradition is governed by bishops.

The Orthodox Church throughout the world is one, because it has a single doctrine. The doctrine of the Orthodox Church is contained in Holy Scripture and Holy Tradition. Tradition is maintained in the life of the Church and in the writings of Holy fathers. Canon law of the Orthodox Church is based on rules that were adopted at the seven Ecumenical Councils and the writings of the Fathers. The supreme legislative body common to all Orthodox Churches in the world is the Ecumenical Council, which is their common bond. Such Councils are the highest authority of the Church in matters of the Doctrine of the Faith and the structure of the Orthodox Church in the world

The Church was formed in the period from 1st to 9th century. According to this establishment Christians organised along national territory and local churches. Local churches were combined into a single Church. While up to the 9th century, the Roman Patriarchate participated in all Ecumenical Councils and their resolutions however the Roman Patriarch began to say that Council resolutions require the approval of the Bishop of Rome. The Eastern Church protested and among many other things, this led to a schism in 1054, with on the one hand the Roman Patriarch and on the other Patriarchates of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. The Eastern patriarchates continued to hold fast Orthodox teachings and opposed the new developments in the Roman church (the " Filioque ", the papacy, the introduction of Latin, the idea of indulgences, general celibacy of the clergy and others.)

It is a historical mistake, though common enough to think that the Orthodox Church was established in 1054 secession from Rome. Local Orthodox Churches have never been subject to Rome, although the Bishop of Rome as the first bishop originally the capital of the Roman Empire, was considered an authority. The legal aspect of the Eastern Patriarchs to the Roman was the same as was their relationship with each other. It was not a relationship of subordination, but equality. The secession from Rome of those communities that were formed in the West at the Reformation, before the Reformation had belonged to the Church of Rome.

The Orthodox Church has solved her relationship to minorities and the state departments so that it is organised under the national territory and under nations. The ancient Patriarchate of Constantinople is the "first among equals" then come Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. Historical development later created additional local patriarchates: Russian, Georgian, Serbian, Romanian and Bulgarian and local churches. Cyprus, Greece, Poland, Albania, Orthodox Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia, the U.S., Sinai, Finnish and Japanese. Prior to the Great Schism of 1054, the Orthodox Church of Britain maintained its independence from Rome and functioned as Orthodox for a thousand yearts until the papal Norman invasion of 1066.


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